If you have something you would like announced on this page, send me an email. Please do not send attachments. Restrict your suggestions to items relevant to Jewish music. Thanks. —Judy
April 28, 2016
Mauro Braunstein Nusach DatabaseMauro Braunstein, a mathematician and composer, has put together a database of nusach melodies with score that he has transcribed. The database contains thousands of variations of nusach covering the gamut of Jewish liturgical texts. It is divided by liturgy (weekdays, Sabbath, holidays), life cycles, and trope. Within these sections are myriad examples of the melodies and traditions of singing for the texts. There is score set for each of these, and some links to outside sound files as well. The purpose of the site is to offer a leader or researcher musical options to sing the services. Braunstein also offers his services for transcribing recordings into sheet music of those who contact him, which many will find extremely useful. This is an excellent site as a resource for finding nusach in musical notation, although some may find some of the options given within a score somewhat confusing, most will find this very helpful. http://offtonic.com/nusach/
Kraines Family SingsRabbi Ze'ev Kraines, originally from California and educated at Cornell University and University of South Africa, has a website with useful musical mp3 files. Rabbi Kraines, a Rav at Ohr Somayach Sandton in Johannesburg, South Africa, has put together a listing called "Kraines Family Sings" of mp3 files of singing Jewish melodies which has three major components: Around the Shabbos Table, Around the Sheva Brochas Table, and Around the Year. https://sites.google.com/a/ohrsandton.com/files/kraines-family-sings
Shaar Hashamayim Synagogue in LondonA full complement of material for learning congregational tunes and the hazzanut of the London Sephardi tradition is available in mp3 format online. The website contains a wealth of music materials. https://sites.google.com/site/shaarhashamayimlondon/
April 10, 2016
V'hi Sheamda by HaZamir JHS Choir
Yonatan Razel's "V'hi She'amda" performed HaZamir style at the 23rd Annual Gala Concert on Sunday, April 3, 2016 at Carnegie Hall.#ShabbatShalomPosted by HaZamir: The International Jewish High School Choir on Friday, April 8, 2016
April 06, 2016
Lexicon of Klezmer TerminologyThe jewish Music Research Centre at Hebrew University of Jerusalem now hosts a free dictionary of terms relating to klezmer music online. The lexicon is in English. This new "Lexicon of Klezmer Terminology" or LKT lists terms in alphabetical order. The LKT "compiles a wide array of source materials that shed light on the historical and contemporary state of knowledge about klezmer music. Each entry includes a number of citations from primary and secondary sources that include or refers to the term in question. It also indicates whether musical notation or sound recordings are included in the source."
Zemel Choir at Rykestrasse Synagogue
It seemed like a good day for Lewandowski. Enjoy.
March 28, 2016
Yiddish Summer Weimar 2016: Bobe Mayses? European Legends and Yiddish border-crossingsYiddish Summer Weimar 2016: Bobe Mayses? European Legends and Yiddish border-crossings
July 10 to August 12 2016
In 2016, Yiddish Summer rocks Weimar with more than 70 concerts, jam sessions, workshops, dances, sing-alongs and many more events for all ages. This year, the festival week also features the premieres of two works created during Yiddish Summer 2016 http://yiddishsummer.eu/special/bobe-mayses-theater.html
Bobe Mayses, raucous, Yiddish puppet/street theater, and http://yiddishsummer.eu/special/gilgul-dance.html Gilgul, joyful contemporary Yiddish dance.
More information: yiddishsummer.eu
March 25, 2016
Esther Herlitz z"lEsther Herlitz, Israel's first female ambassador was also a staunch supporter of the arts and music in Israel, passed away Thursday, March 24 2016 at the age of 94. Born in 1921 in Berlin, she moved to pre-State Israel in 1933. She served in the British Army and the Haganah. In 1948, she began work at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Tel Aviv. Starting in 1950, she worked with Abba Eban in the embassy in Washington, then New York and then the consulate in Boston. In 1958 she returned from the US to help in the developing the Mapai party. She served on the Tel Aviv City Council and Chaired the Culture Committee 1960-64. From 1966-1974 Herlitz served as Israel Ambassador to Denmark. She was elected as Labor to the Knesset in 1974 and served on the Committee for Foreign Affairs and Defense. Throughout her political career, Herlitz was a staunch supporter of the rights of women in Israel. After politics, Herlitz turned to some of her other loves, such as music. She served as director of the World Assembly of Choirs which holds a trienniel Zimriya in Israel and also became Chair of the International Harp Contest, also held every third year in Jerusalem. She has been a friend of the Zamir Choral Foundation in New York and musical activities for youth in the HaZamir teen choir. Among her many honors, Herlitz won the Israel Prize for a lifetime of achievements in 2015.
March 21, 2016
Nehama Reuben plays her Psalm 121 Esa Enai on HarpNahama Reuben and her husband moved to Israel from France a few years ago. She continues to perform on harp and sends along this video of a new composition for harp. Beautiful!
HaZamir at Carnegie HallHaZamir at CARNEGIE HALL CONCERT - SUNDAY APRIL 3, 2016
HaZamir: The International Jewish High School Choir Gala Concert on Sunday April 3, 2016 @2:30pm.
Carnegie Hall, The Stern Auditorium/Perelman Hall, 881 7th Ave, New York, NY 10019
Take the elevators or stairs off the main Box Office lobby on 57th Street
385 singers from cities across America and Israel. Maestro Matthew Lazar is founder and director. HaZamir draws together a network of twenty-five American chapters and six Israeli chapters. Each chapter teaches its singers throughout the year a shared repertoire of classical and contemporary Jewish choral music.
Continue reading "HaZamir at Carnegie Hall"
Hopkele! in LondonThere will be a Hopkele on Sunday 27 March at 6.30pm. Book your tickets right away
The amazing Guy Schalom will be leading the dancing for a one-off klezmer keilidh, with London Klezmer Quartet providing the music. After the interval enjoy the music of Jewish party band Shir.
The Purim Klezmer Dance Party with Guy Schalom (dance caller) and Shir is at JW3, Finchley, London on 27 March. Suitable for all ages and dance abilities. https://www.jw3.org.uk/event/purim-klezmer-dance-party?pid=19090#.VuBxj2SsU4Q
March 18, 2016
Social Action Concert: Galeet Dardashti and DivahnApril 2, 2016 - 8:30pm
Beth Am Shalom Synagogue
295 Soundview Avenue, White Plains, NY
Join us for an evening of extraordinary music. Our guest artists, Galeet Dardashti and her band Divahn, are popular throughout the United States for their Sephardic-Middle Eastern music.
Galeet Dardashti and Divahn
Following a family tradition of distinguished Jewish and Persian musicianship, Galeet Dardashti leads the renowned all-female power-house Middle Eastern Jewish ensemble, Divahn. The group has gained an international following with its fresh and fiery renditions of traditional and original Middle Eastern Jewish songs: lush string arrangements, eclectic Indian, Middle Eastern, and Latin percussion, and vocals spanning Hebrew, Judeo-Spanish, Persian, Arabic, and Aramaic. As one of the few groups performing Mizrahi music in the US, Divahn welcomes its audiences to a beautiful sphere of shared Jewish and Muslim culture.
Visit Galeet Dardashti's website. http://www.galeetdardashti.com/
Presented by the Social Action Committee. Concert proceeds will benefit the Children's Center for Learning (a Headstart program for homeless children) and the Midnight Run. Refreshments will be served.
$25: 18 and under
$30: Adults (advance purchase)
$35: Adults at the door (subject to availability)
Click here for tickets.
Contact Barbara Weinreb for details.
Bet Am Shalom Synagogue
March 17, 2016
Hebraic Jazz in JerusalemConcert exceptionnel de Harpe Hebraique et Piano jazz *avant Pessah, pour tous publics !!!* *Nehama REUBEN & *Shimon REUBEN Unique couple au monde *Harpe hebraique et Piano jazz **Concertistes virtuoses internationaux * Celebres melodies and famous jewish and jazz music
*Mercredi soir Wednesday 13 Avril 2016 - 20h*
*Hall Harmonia 27 Rehov Hillel Jerusalem*
*Reservations 052 235 2010 tel, sms & whatsapp.*
Tickets 50sh sur place le soir du concert,
on site the night of concert
Sortez du nettoyage de Pessah, jetez les fausses notes, venez ressourcer votre coeur et votre ame, en ecoutant et en respirant les sons divins et enchanteurs de la harpe de Nehama REUBEN et du piano de Shimon REUBEN, agrementes de leur humour personnel et d'une ambiance musicale pure, authentique et regeneratrice.
Unique couple au monde Harp hebraic & piano jazz 40 ans de concerts internationaux.
Leave the cleaning of Pesach, throw wrong notes, come to give happiness to your heart and your soul, by listening and breathing the divine and enchanting sounds of the harp Nehama REUBEN and piano Shimon REUBEN, decorated with their personal humor and pure authentic musical and regenerative atmosphere.
March 08, 2016
Seasoned with Song: Sacred Music of the Ashkenazic Sabbath MealsSeasoned with Song: Sacred Music of the Ashkenazic Sabbath Meals with Dr. Eve Jochnowitz - 3/31/16, NYPL http://www.nypl.org/events/programs/2016/03/31/seasoned-song-sacred-music-ashkenazic-sabbath-meals-dr-eve-jochnowitz
Thursday, March 31, 2016, 6:30 p.m.
455 Fifth Avenue
New York, NY, 10016
Fully Handicapped Accessible
The Sabbath meals and their songs are repeatedly cited as being among the chief pleasures and obligations of the Sabbath, codified with the Talmudic injunction that on the Sabbath Jews should eat, drink, discuss Torah, and sing songs. Two traditions connect the Sabbath Zmires with Sabbath foods: the belief that the songs alone are nourishment, and the mystical tradition that food is itself a form of worship. This presentation examines some of the surprising cultural phenomena of the genre of zmires within and outside their traditional setting.
Continue reading "Seasoned with Song: Sacred Music of the Ashkenazic Sabbath Meals"
February 27, 2016
La Chanson française juive, une énigme en MontrealLa bibliotheque publique juive presente une conference en français
avec Dina Sabbah et Helene Engel :
«La Chanson française juive, une énigme…»
le mardi 15 mars 2016 à 19h30
au 5151, chemin de la Côte Ste-Catherine, Montréal
Stationnement en exterieur gratuit au YM-YWHA.
10$ régulier, 7$ pour les membres de la BJP et pour les étudiants (sur réservation à l’avance par téléphone).
Billetterie (514) 345-6416.
Renseignements en ligne http://www.jewishpubliclibrary.org/.
Pourquoi ne trouve-t-on pas de corpus de musique juive en français?
Dina Sabbah et Hélène Engel partageront leurs recherches et leurs réflexions dans un débat ouvert aux interventions du public.
Après une tentative de définition du concept de « musique juive », des hypothèses seront émises pour expliquer les raisons de son absence dans le corpus francophone. Des chansons françaises viendront illustrer les propos des conférencières. La vie de certains artistes et leur rapport avec le judaïsme seront évoqués pour une soirée riche en découvertes ou en redécouvertes.
Hélène Engel est chanteuse, musicologue, musicothérapeute et journaliste sur Radio Shalom Montréal où elle présente une émission musicale hebdomadaire.
Dina Sabbah détient un Ph.D. en ethnomusicologie et elle anime une émission musicale sur Radio Shalom Montréal. Elle est aussi l’auteure de deux ouvrages de transcription musicale de la liturgie séfarade.
February 02, 2016
World of Hasidic MusicSholem Aleichem Culture Centeris happy to announce our rescheduled lecture in Yiddish by a heymisher expert on Hasidic music:
"The World of Hasidic Music"
Sunday, February 28, 2016
In the musical program: A singer of Hasidic songs and nigunim
Contribution: $5.00; Members free
Sholem Aleichem Culture Center
3301 Bainbridge Avenue, Bronx, NY
Corner 208th street, nr. Montefiore Hospital
D train to 205th St. or 4 train to Moshulu Parkway
Visit and "like" us on Facebook at: https://www.facebook.com/Sholem-Aleichem-Cultural-Center-Bronx-238579126233379/
January 09, 2016
Brothers Nazaroff Band releases Smithsonian RecordingA new recording has sparked a story on NPR about klezmer music.
December 30, 2015
Collection of Yiddish Songs in HathiTrustSeveral libraries have digitized scores of Yiddish music, which are now linked and in the HathiTrust. Other books of interest are listed in the catalog, but not yet available full text online to the public. Small collection, but interesting.
December 27, 2015
Bulletproof Stockings All Female Hasidic Rock BandTheForward ran a story about Bullet proof Stockings, an all female hasidic rock band. This unusual combination will produce a CD of their music and they are on tour with shows for all female audiences.br /> http://forward.com/culture/327803/bulletproof-stockings-worlds-first-all-female-hasidic-rock-band-gets-debut/?attribution=our-picks-1-title&attribution=our-picks-1-title&attribution=our-picks-1-title
December 25, 2015
Klezmer GuideAllen Lutins has created a very useful cross listing of Klezmer tunes with recordings and places to find scores for that song. It's a great starting place for anyone wishing to find out where to either listen to a klezmer tune or to see the sheet music if you already know the names of the songs you want. KlezmerGuide: www.klezmerguide.com
December 09, 2015
DREAMING IN YIDDISH: ADRIENNE COOPER MEMORIAL CONCERTSaturday Dec 26, 2015 8:00 pm
Museum of Jewish Heritage36 Battery Place New York, NY
Admission: $36Students: $18Patrons: $180
Buy tickets online: http://dreaminginyiddish2015.brownpapertickets.com/
All proceeds go to the Adrienne Cooper Fund for Dreaming in Yiddish, which supports artists working in Yiddish. Co-sponsored by YIVO in association with Yiddish New York, GOH Productions, The National Yiddish Theatre Folksbiene, and the Museum of Jewish Heritage.
Celebrate the life and work of Adrienne Cooper, Yiddish singer, scholar, and former Assistant Director at YIVO. Stars of the klezmer and Yiddish world, including Frank London, Sarah Gordon, Michael Winograd, and Joshua Dolgin present an evening of music from In Love and In Struggle: The Musical Legacy of the Jewish Labor Bund (YIVO, 1999), an album that featured Adrienne and reflects her passion for justice and Yiddish. This year’s concert also awards Joshua Dolgin (a.k.a. Socalled) with the 2015 Adrienne Cooper Dreaming in Yiddish Award for his work as a singer, composer, hip-hop artist, and puppeteer.
December 05, 2015
New Masters in Jewish Cultural ArtsNew MA Program: MA in Jewish Cultural Arts at George Washington University
by Sarah Imhoff
GWU new Jewish Studies program / Sarah Imhoff
Take a leaf from our book...support the arts...send us your students.
For more information, please click here: http://judaic.columbian.gwu.edu/master-arts-jewish-cultural-arts
Jenna Weissman Joselit
Director, MA in Jewish Cultural Arts
The George Washington University
December 04, 2015
Cultural Heritage of the Diaspora. Yiddish and Judeo-Spanish: Contrast, Comparison, ContactCultural Heritage of the Diaspora. Yiddish and Judeo-Spanish: Contrast, Comparison, Contact
May 8th-9th, 2016, Wrocław
The conference aims to show the current state of research on Yiddish and Judeo-Spanish (Ladino, Judezmo) as well as their present condition and importance as part of the legacy of the Jewish Diaspora. It also creates an opportunity to exchange views and to share the experiences of scholars dealing with both languages. We invite submissions that include different research perspectives or adopt comparative approach in history, anthropology, linguistics, literature and culture studies.
Thematic scope of the conference:
1. Yiddish and Judeo-Spanish - Parallel Histories
History of Yiddish and Judeo-Spanish languages, their structure, character and areas of use in a linguistic, social and gender context.
Description, current state, preservation and protection of sources in both languages (archival documents, press, memorial books, ethnographic sources, oral history etc.).
History and significance of Yiddish and Judeo-Spanish writing and literature, their autonomy or links with Hebrew literature and with heritage of the outer cultures (e.g. German, Polish, Russian, Spanish, Turkish, Greek, South-Slavic etc.). Writers, readers, editors in a social and gender perspective. Religious and secular literature.
Yiddish and Judeo-Spanish musical heritage in a historic and contemporary perspective. Its importance for the popularization of Diaspora legacy. Judeo-Spanish and Yiddish folk songs as research material for Jewish folk studies. Jewish cognitive ethnomusicology.
5. Living Communities: Yiddish and Judeo-Spanish Today
Contemporary Yiddish and Judeo-Spanish and their current users. Prospects of maintenance, preservation and promotion of Yiddish and Ladino as endangered languages.
Please submit paper proposals (max. 20 minutes for presentation) by January 15th, 2016 at: firstname.lastname@example.org. Paper proposals should include: paper title, author’s name, affiliation, e-mail address, and a short abstract. Notification of abstract acceptance will be sent by February 5th, 2016.
Conference participants are welcome to join in events at the Center for Jewish Culture and Education in the White Stork Synagogue, Włodkowica St. 5a.
Thursday, May 5: Sing with us in Yiddish – two children's choirs from Wrocław and Sighet, Romania will present a repertoire of Yiddish songs with Bente Kahan
Sunday, May 8: Celebrating Yiddish and Ladino – a concert created in Wroclaw by the Bente Kahan Foundation especially for Wroclaw European Capital of Culture 2016 to present Yiddish and Ladino, two European minority cultures and languages spoken by more than 15 million Jews before World War II. Bente Kahan (Wroclaw, Poland), Rosa Zaragoza and Ruso Sala (Girona, Spain) will be joined by Yiddish and Ladino musicians and artists for an evening at the White Stork Synagogue that will bring alive the journey of Yiddish and Ladino across Europe through song, music and dance.
Monday, May 9: Master classes with Greg Wall (klezmer), Bente Kahan (Yiddish song and music), Rosa Zaragoza with assistant Ruso Sala (Ladino song and music). The master classes will be free but booking is required. For more information please write to email@example.com
November 29, 2015
Judith Berkson Presents Cantorial Music from the YIVO ArchiveWednesday, Dec. 2, 2015 at 7:00pm
YIVO Institute at The Center for Jewish History
15 West 16th Street
Acclaimed singer musician Judith Berkson presents arrangements of music from the YIVO sound archives, including from unreleased and rare recordings from Eastern European cantorial singing from the "Golden Age" of Cantors. Berkson, Frank London, Lana Cencic, and Cleek Schrey, reinterpret the sounds of Chagy, Karniol and Sophie Kurtzer. Berkson has composed new music inspired by the YIVO sound collection.
The New York Times has written: Of Judith Berkson's CD Oylam: "Standards and Schubert and liturgical music, swing and chilly silences...I can't get enough of it."
For more information and to buy tickets, visit the YIVO website: yivo.org/berkson Continue reading "Judith Berkson Presents Cantorial Music from the YIVO Archive"
November 28, 2015
"Di Goldene Kale (The Golden Bride)" in New YorkYiddish Opera Di Goldene Kale (the Golden Bride) will be live in New York and runs from Dec. 2 through Jan. 3 at the Museum of Jewish Heritage, 36 Battery Place, Lower Manhattan
An article about the show appears in the New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/28/theater/preparing-the-golden-bride-for-its-big-day.html?emc=eta1&_r=0 Previews December 2 – 6
Performances December 8 – January 3
Gala Opening Night
Tuesday | December 8 | 7:30 P.M.
Wednesdays & Thursdays | 2 P.M. & 7:30 P.M.*
Saturdays | 7:30 P.M.
Sundays | 2 P.M. & 6 P.M.
Fridays | December 25 & January 1| 12 P.M.
*No 7:30 P.M. Performance on December 31
NYTF opens its 101st season with Di Goldene Kale (The Golden Bride), first seen on stage in the Roaring 20s. In this operetta, Goldele, a poor girl from the shtetl, inherits a fortune from her estranged father and embarks on a mission to find both her long-lost mother and her husband-to-be. Joseph Rumshinsky's original score is performed by a full orchestra in this lavish production.
$35 Preview Performances; $40 Performances;
$30 MJH and NYTF Members
Purchase tickets at 866.811.4111 or online.
For Groups of 10 or more:
$30 Preview Performances; $35 Performances
212.213.2120 x204 or firstname.lastname@example.org
For Gala Opening Night pricing and information, please contact Aviva Miller at 212.213.2120 x208 or email@example.com
November 20, 2015
Poland's Klezmer Heritage SundayPoland's Klezmer Heritage Sunday, November 22, 2:00PM
The Center for Traditional Music and Dance An-sky Institute for Jewish Culture is pleased to present Jankiel's Legacy: Poland's Klezmer Music Heritage. All Polish schoolchildren know the character of Jankiel, the wise, old Jewish tsimbl (dulcimer) player featured in Pan Tadeusz, the epic masterpiece by Polish poet Adam Mickiewicz.
For hundreds of years, Jewish klezmer developed in shtetls throughout historic Polish territories as well as in cities like Warsaw, Krakow, Vilna, Lviv, and Lodz. In recent decades there has been a resurgence of interest among Poles in Jewish music, and today Poland is home to some of the world's largest Yiddish music festivals. Join Walter Zev Feldman (NYU in Abu Dhabi), a pioneer of the klezmer revival and one of the music's leading scholars, along with acclaimed tsimbl player and CTMD Executive Director, Pete Rushefsky, the celebrated klezmer flutist Adrianne Greenbaum (Mount Holyoke) and violin virtuoso Jake Shulman-Ment for a multi-media presentation and performance exploring Poland's klezmer heritage.
Admission: $10, members/seniors/students: $7.
At the Center for Jewish History, 15 West 16th Street in Manhattan. (2:00PM)
Presented in partnership with the Sholem Aleichem Cultural Center, the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research and the Center for Jewish History. Special support for this event was made possible by the Eli Kleinman Fund for Jewish Education of the Jewish Community Foundation of Greater Metrowest. For more information: https://www.yivo.org/Polands-Klezmer-Music-Heritage
November 11, 2015
Jews, Music, and Postwar German CultureJEWISH MUSIC FORUM EVENT
Jewish Music Forum 2015–16 Season Opener In conjunction with The Barry S. Brook Center for Music Research and Documentation and the Leo Back Institute
“Jews, Music, and Postwar German Culture”
Book Talk and Conversation with Dr. Tina Frühauf (RILM, CUNY), Dr. William H. Weitzer (Executive Director, Leo Baeck Institute), and Dr. Mark Slobin (Winslow-Kaplan Professor of Music, Wesleyan University)
Dislocated Memories: Jews, Music, and Postwar German Culture (Oxford University Press, 2014), editors Tina Frühauf and Lily Hirsch
Monday, November 30, 6:00 p.m.
The Graduate Center, CUNY
365 Fifth Avenue, The Skylight Conference Room: 9100
The first volume of its kind, Dislocated Memories: Jews, Music, and Postwar German Culture draws together three significant areas of inquiry: Jewish music, German culture, and the legacy of the Holocaust. The volume makes powerful arguments about the impact of the Holocaust and its aftermath in changing contexts of musical performance and composition. In doing so, the essays in Dislocated Memories cover a wide spectrum of topics from the immediate postwar period with music in the Displaced Persons camps to the later twentieth century with compositions conceived in response to the Holocaust and the klezmer revival at the turn of this century. Dislocated Memories builds on a wide range of recent and critical scholarship in Cold War studies, cultural history, German studies, Holocaust studies, Jewish studies, and memory studies.
Admission is Free for Jewish Music Forum Attendees Only
For Free Admission You Must RSVP to: firstname.lastname@example.org
Reception to follow event
This program is sponsored by the American Society for Jewish Music, the Jewish Music Forum, and the Leo Baeck Institute, in conjunction with the The Barry S. Book Center for Music Research and Documentation, CUNY. http://brookcenter.gc.cuny.edu/
The Jewish Music Forum is a project of the American Society for Jewish Music, with the support of the American Jewish Historical Society and the Center for Jewish History. Founded in 2004, the Jewish Music Forum is now in its twelfth season.
For more information please visit
November 03, 2015
21st Century Masters of the Klezmer ViolinTuesday night, November 3, 7PM - Center for Traditional Music and Dance is pleased to copresent Fidl-21st Century Masters of the Klezmer Violin at the beautiful Museum at Eldridge Street in NYC. ?Featuring Alicia Svigals, Deborah Strauss and Jake Shulman-Ment who will tell their personal stories of how they became intimately involved in the revival of the klezmer violin tradition. Moderated by ethnomusicologist Amanda Scherbenske. Click below for more information....http://www.eldridgestreet.org/event/concert-fidl-21st-century-masters-of-the-klezmer-violin-and-jam/
Co-presented with the Center for Traditional Music and Dance
$20 adults; $14 students and seniors
12 Eldridge Street, New York, NY 10002 Museum Site: 212.219.0302
September 21, 2015
Yosselle Rosenblatt Sings Kol Nidree
Probably recorded in the 1920s.